|“||If you're not careful, the newspapers will have you hating the people who are being oppressed, and loving the people who are doing the oppressing.||”|
Neo-fascism, also known as the alt-right, is a post-Second World War ideology that expresses admiration, alignment or agreement with historical fascism. Neo-fascists are also commonly referred to as neo-Nazis however some neo-fascists may not follow Nazi ideology.
Neo-fascism is a reactionary ideology. Neo-fascists commonly align with the following ideologies discussed in this article, although not exclusively. Some examples of neo-fascist political parties are UKIP in the UK and Golden Dawn in Greece.
Neo-fascism uses the "palingenetic myth" to draw in voters by way of manipulating their fears and uncertainties about the current political environment, and by promising a better future under fascist rule and a rebirth of "the nation". Ultranationalism drives its believers to put absolute faith in the "new nation" the fascists promise. Often "outsiders" and marginalized people are put to blame for the ills of the nation and targeted by repression, expulsion or even genocide. Fascism demands subservience of the individual to the will of the "new nation" and requires absolute unquestioned loyalty to a strong ruler.
Neo-fascists also engage in national-mysticism and other forms of pseudo-history to make their own nation look superior to others, or white-wash the history of the said nation (eg. Holocaust denial).
Populism is a political doctrine that appeals to the hopes and fears of the people, i.e., the middle and working classes, as opposed to the elite. Fascists manipulate the distressed middle class by appealing to their emotions. To do this they offer a solution by means of a scapegoat, often ascribing blame to already marginalized and oppressed social groups who are considered in any way outside of the social norm, e.g., gay and queer people.
Neo-fascists in their conception of the "rebirth of the new nation" generally oppose immigration because "outsiders" are scapegoated for whichever political or social ills are most useful to the fascist agenda. Common scapegoating tactics include rhetoric like blaming crime and/or unemployment on immigrants.
Nativism is a political ideology that ascribes a favored status to one or more groups within a nation. Those unable or unwilling to be assimilated into the favored groups are often oppressed, treated with hostility, and even genocide in an attempt to "purify" or "purge" the nation of cultural elements deemed unacceptable.
Neo-fascists often create and/or exploit fears of a communist revolution within the nation to gain power or influence. People who disagree with neo-fascism are conveniently labeled communists or cultural Marxists. The cultural Marxist label, as well as words such as "degenerate", are often applied to feminist and social justice oriented groups, especially LGBT activism. This is a form of witch-hunt; a tactic used to build upon the fears of the average population. Moreover directing the hatred of the public towards such radical, progressive, or even liberal groups allows the fascist government to distract them from their own human rights abuses and other shortcomings.
Opposition to democracy
Neo-fascists seek absolute control over the nation and as such oppose any process that could possibly remove them from power, such as universal suffrage. Fascists seek to place a dictator, or a small committee, in charge of the nation and assign them absolute authority. The leaders often becomes a symbol, or even semi-deified, embodying neo-fascist ideology.
Post-fascism is a modified form of neo-fascism that allows for some of the democratic process to take place. This is an attempt to win over enough of the population via the grant of universal suffrage. As, with neo-fascism more broadly, post-fascism makes use of fear tactics and propaganda to gain power. However it should be noted that their tolerance of the democratic process is simply a means to an end. Once in power, post-fascists aim to halt the democratic process and revert to a more obviously fascist system.
The so called "alt-right" is a new branding attempt by modern neo-fascists in an attempt to gain electoral victories in democratic systems as described in the post-fascist section. The alt-right makes heavy use of fascist dog whistles to prevent most people from being aware of their goals and ideology. They also make heavy use of memes and internet culture in an attempt to spread their ideology, as well as viral propaganda.